微服务环境搭建

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我们本次是使用的电商项目中的商品、订单、用户为案例进行讲解.

案例准备

技术选型

maven: 3.3.9

数据库: MySQL 5.7

持久层: SpingData Jpa

其他: SpringCloud Alibaba 技术栈

模块设计

springcloud-alibaba 父工程

shop-common 公共模块【实体类】

shop-user 用户微服务 【端口: 8071】

shop-product 商品微服务 【端口: 8081】

shop-order 订单微服务 【端口: 8091】

模块设计

微服务调用

在微服务架构中,最常见的场景就是微服务之间的相互调用。我们以电商系统中常见的用户下单为例来 演示微服务的调用:客户向订单微服务发起一个下单的请求,在进行保存订单之前需要调用商品微服务 查询商品的信息。

我们一般把服务的主动调用方称为服务消费者,把服务的被调用方称为服务提供者

微服务调用

在这种场景下,订单微服务就是一个服务消费者, 商品微服务就是一个服务提供者。

创建父工程

创建一个maven工程,然后在pom.xml文件中添加下面内容

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" 
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 
         http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    <parent>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
        <version>2.1.3.RELEASE</version>
    </parent>
    <groupId>cn.maruifu</groupId>
    <artifactId>springcloud-alibaba</artifactId>
    <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    <packaging>pom</packaging>
    <properties>
        <java.version>1.8</java.version>
        <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
        <project.reporting.outputEncoding>UTF- 8</project.reporting.outputEncoding>
        <spring-cloud.version>Greenwich.RELEASE</spring-cloud.version>
        <spring-cloud-alibaba.version>2.1.0.RELEASE</spring-cloud-alibaba.version>
    </properties>
    <dependencyManagement>
        <dependencies>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-cloud-dependencies</artifactId>
                <version>${spring-cloud.version}</version>
                <type>pom</type>
                <scope>import</scope>
            </dependency>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>com.alibaba.cloud</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-cloud-alibaba-dependencies</artifactId>
                <version>${spring-cloud-alibaba.version}</version>
                <type>pom</type>
                <scope>import</scope>
            </dependency>
        </dependencies>
    </dependencyManagement>
</project>

版本对应:

版本对应

创建基础模块

创建 shop-common 模块:

在pom.xml中添加依赖

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0
         http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <parent>
        <artifactId>springcloud-alibaba</artifactId>
        <groupId>cn.maruifu</groupId>
        <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    </parent>
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    <artifactId>shop-common</artifactId>
    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-data-jpa</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
            <artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.alibaba</groupId>
            <artifactId>fastjson</artifactId>
            <version>1.2.56</version>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>mysql</groupId>
            <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
            <version>5.1.6</version>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
</project>

创建实体类

@Entity(name = "shop_user")
@Data
public class User {
    @Id
    @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.IDENTITY)
    private Integer uid;//主键

    private String username;//用户名

    private String password;//密码

    private String telephone;//手机号

}

//商品

@Entity(name = "shop_product")
@Data
public class Product {
    @Id
    @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.IDENTITY)
    private Integer pid;//主键

    private String pname;//商品名称

    private Double pprice;//商品价格

    private Integer stock;//库存

}

//订单
@Entity(name = "shop_order")
@Data
public class Order {
    @Id
    @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.IDENTITY)
    private Long oid;//订单id

    private Integer uid;//用户id

    private String username;//用户名
}

创建用户微服务

新建一个 shop-user 模块,然后进行下面操作

创建pom.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0
         http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">

    <parent>
        <artifactId>springcloud-alibaba</artifactId>
        <groupId>cn.maruifu</groupId>
        <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    </parent>
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    <artifactId>shop-user</artifactId>
    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.itheima</groupId>
            <artifactId>shop-common</artifactId>
            <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
</project>

编写主类

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableDiscoveryClient
public class UserApplication {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        SpringApplication.run(UserApplication.class, args);
    }
}

创建配置文件

server:
  port: 8071
spring:
  application:
   name: service-product

   datasource:
    driver-class-name: com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
    url: jdbc:mysql:///shop?serverTimezone=UTC&useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=utf-8&useSSL=true
    username: root
    password: root

   jpa:
    properties:
    hibernate:
     hbm2ddl:
      auto: update
      dialect: org.hibernate.dialect.MySQL5InnoDBDialect

创建商品微服务

创建pom.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0
http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <parent>
        <artifactId>springcloud-alibaba</artifactId>
        <groupId>cn.maruifu</groupId>
        <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    </parent>
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    <artifactId>shop-product</artifactId>
    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.itheima</groupId>
            <artifactId>shop-common</artifactId>
            <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
</project>

编写主类

@SpringBootApplication

public class ProductApplication {

    public static void main(String[] args) {

        SpringApplication.run(ProductApplication.class, args);

    }

}

创建配置文件

server:
  port: 8081
spring:
  application:
   name: service-product

   datasource:
    driver-class-name: com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
    url: jdbc:mysql:///shop?serverTimezone=UTC&useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=utf-8&useSSL=true
    username: root
    password: root

   jpa:
    properties:
    hibernate:
     hbm2ddl:
      auto: update
      dialect: org.hibernate.dialect.MySQL5InnoDBDialect


创建ProductDao接口

package com.itheima.dao; 

public interface ProductDao extends JpaRepository<Product,Integer> { 

}
复制代码

创建ProductService类

package cn.maruifu.service.impl; 

@Service 

public class ProductServiceImpl implements ProductService { 

@Autowired 

private ProductDao productDao; 

@Override 

public Product findByPid(Integer pid) { 

return productDao.findById(pid).get(); 

} 

}
复制代码

创建Controller

@RestController 

@Slf4j 

public class ProductController { 

@Autowired 

private ProductService productService; 

@GetMapping("/product/{pid}") 

public Product product(@PathVariable("pid") Integer pid) { 

Product product = productService.findByPid(pid); 

log.info("查询到商品:" + JSON.toJSONString(product)); 

return product; 

} 

}
复制代码

启动工程

等到数据库表创建完毕之后,加入测试数据

INSERT INTO shop_product VALUE(NULL,'小米','1000','5000'); 

INSERT INTO shop_product VALUE(NULL,'华为','2000','5000'); 

INSERT INTO shop_product VALUE(NULL,'苹果','3000','5000'); 

INSERT INTO shop_product VALUE(NULL,'OPPO','4000','5000');

通过浏览器访问服务

image-20210127211736478

创建订单微服务

创建pom.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0
http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <parent>
        <artifactId>springcloud-alibaba</artifactId>
        <groupId>cn.maruifu</groupId>
        <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    </parent>
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    <artifactId>shop-order</artifactId>
    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.itheima</groupId>
            <artifactId>shop-common</artifactId>
            <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
</project>

编写主类

package cn.maruifu;
@SpringBootApplication
public class OrderApplication {
  public static void main(String[] args) { SpringApplication.run(OrderApplication.class, args); }
}

创建配置文件

server:
  port: 8091
spring:
  application:
   name: service-product

   datasource:
    driver-class-name: com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
    url: jdbc:mysql:///shop?serverTimezone=UTC&useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=utf-8&useSSL=true
    username: root
    password: root

   jpa:
    properties:
    hibernate:
     hbm2ddl:
      auto: update
      dialect: org.hibernate.dialect.MySQL5InnoDBDialect

创建OrderDao接口

package com.itheima.dao; 

public interface OrderDao extends JpaRepository<Order,Long> { 

}
复制代码

创建OrderService类

@Service 
public class OrderServiceImpl implements OrderService { 
@Autowired 
private OrderDao orderDao; 
@Override 
  public void save(Order order) { 

      orderDao.save(order); 

  } 

}

6创建RestTemplate

@SpringBootApplication 
public class OrderApplication { 
public static void main(String[] args) { 
   SpringApplication.run(OrderApplication.class, args);
}
@Bean 
	public RestTemplate getRestTemplate() { 
		return new RestTemplate(); 
	} 
}

创建Controller

package com.itheima.controller;
@RestController @Slf4j public class OrderController {
	@Autowired private RestTemplate restTemplate;
	@Autowired private OrderService orderService;
	//准备买1件商品 
	@GetMapping("/order/prod/{pid}") 
	public Order order(@PathVariable("pid") Integer pid) {
		log.info(">>客户下单,这时候要调用商品微服务查询商品信息");
		//通过restTemplate调用商品微服务 
		Product product = restTemplate.getForObject( 
		"http://localhost:8081/product/" + pid, Product.class);
		log.info(">>商品信息,查询结果:" + JSON.toJSONString(product));
		Order order = new Order();
		order.setUid(1);
		order.setUsername("测试用户");
		order.setPid(product.getPid());
		order.setPname(product.getPname());
		order.setPprice(product.getPprice());
		order.setNumber(1);
		orderService.save(order);
		return order;
	}
}

浏览器访问服务进行测试

image-20210127212306481